2008 gmc acadia fuse box diagram
1995 GMC Jimmy sls engine fuse box missing?
2023.06.09 18:57 TNT_Guerilla 1995 GMC Jimmy sls engine fuse box missing?
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My abs went out. I assume it's a fuse, cause I've been having issues with blown fuses with this car. I looked where the abs fuse is supposed to be, and it said in the engine fuse box. So I popped the hood and lo and behold, the fuse box isn't there. I'm not a mechanic, but I know what a fuse box looks like, and I can't find it anywhere. I have one just inside on the driver side dash, but that only contains interior electrical fuses. Any ideas on where to look? submitted by TNT_Guerilla to MechanicAdvice [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 10:57 Bakugogoboomboom 2005 5cylinder, Horn not working
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Had this Volvo for a few years recently replaced the engine with a semi “new” (70k mile) engine. Runs amazing I love it, but since I got the car the horn never worked. I don’t have the fuse box cover so I’m not sure which relay or fuse to check first before trying to replace the actual horns. I found what seems like a compatible cover with the diagram online. I tried swapping the FMI1 relay to the FMI2 spot but no luck. Anyone have any experience with this issue or know where to start? Any help is appreciated! submitted by Bakugogoboomboom to VolvoXC90 [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 02:23 NabKhan Which fuses to use for a dash cam? Corolla 2005 E120
Thank you in advance for any responses. From the UK and have a Corolla 2005 1.6 VVT-i (E120) and wanted to install a dash cam and preferably hardwire it. Looking at the fuse information, not sure which ones I should exactly tap into. Since there are 2 sets, one in the engine bay and the other in the instrument panel; of course want to avoid wiring to the engine bay because of my inexperience.
I have included a link that details the fuses and what they're for. I supposed I can tap the cigarette lighter fuse for ACC power however not sure which to use for constant power (BATT). https://fuse-box.info/toyota/toyota-corolla-e120-e130-2003-2008-fuses
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2023.06.08 08:50 Penstamin Can headlight washers be disabled by pulling a fuse?
I have no use for the headlight washers. When they activate, they spray all over the fender and hood in addition to the headlight. Has anyone found a fuse that controls them? I've looked at Macan fuse diagrams for all three fuse boxes and can't find one for the headlight washers.
Has anyone shut these off?
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2023.06.08 04:25 wakes182 2016 honda pilot elite. Front Passanger window wont roll down from the driver side or passanger side. Fuse #4 is good. Where to check next?
Looked at the inside fuse box diagram. 4 says "as pw" I think that's the right fuse. It looks good. Where should I check next?
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to MechanicAdvice [link] [comments]
2023.06.08 01:22 CactusFlour E450 fuse box
2009 Ford E-450: A/C stopped working mid-drive, plenty of coolant, so thinking it’s a fuse but can’t find a reliable fuse box diagram online. Any ideas or suggestions?
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to AskMechanics [link] [comments]
2023.06.08 00:51 tyconious Fuse box diagram
I'm trying to hardwire a dashcam and need a fuse box diagram for my CX-90. I checked the owner's manual and searched Google, but was not able to find anything. Does anyone know where I can find this diagram? (P.S. I'm new to this.)
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to MazdaCX90 [link] [comments]
2023.06.07 21:36 Rude_Establishment58 Parking sensors stopped working. Lights blinding constantly
My parking sensors have stopped working all of a sudden,has this happened to anyone else also does anyone have a fuse box diagram so I can try and change the fuse
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to Nissanqashqai [link] [comments]
2023.06.07 19:01 Nathand352 Can a wrong fuse damage my car?
I recently bought a seat Ibiza but the radio doesn’t work, it may just be a fuse so i do not want to waste time and money at a garage if it’s something as simple as that. When I looked in the fuse box the radio fuse is missing so I have got a new fuse but the fuse box doesn’t reflect the diagram in the manual with the car, so I am worried I may put the fuse in the wrong socket. Would this damage the car if I put the fuse in and quickly check if the radio works?
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2023.06.07 15:57 _manual 2021 Ford F-150 Fuse Box Diagram – Blown Fuse
2023.06.07 15:37 _manual 2016 Ford Transit Fuse Box Diagram – Blown Fuse
2023.06.07 15:36 _manual 2016 Ford F-150 Fuse Box Diagram – Blown Fuse
2023.06.07 06:50 Acrel-electric Discussion about the application of medical IT power system in a hospital
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摘要：本文主要阐述了IT隔离电源系统在深圳市第三人民医院ICU、手术室内的应用，以及IT隔离电源系统的重要性、优点及注意事项。 Abstract: This article mainly describes the application of IT isolated power system in ICU and operating room of the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen city, as well as the importance, advantages and matters needing attention of IT isolated power system.
Key words: IT isolated power supply, system, ground
1、项目概况 Project overview
深圳市第三人民医院项目，位于龙岗区布吉镇李朗立交桥西南侧，建设用地 100005 ㎡，总建筑面积 81737 ㎡，包含门诊楼和医技科研楼、住院楼、行政楼、学术报告厅等共十四栋建筑及配套道路、广场、绿化等。为深圳市重大建设项目，是一所与中心城建设相配套适应 深圳市规划发展的现代化的平战结合的传染病医院。是集医疗、科研、防保、教学与康复为 一体的“三级”传染病医院。
The project of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital is located in the southwest side of Lilang overpass in Buji Town, Longgang District. The construction area is 10,0005 ㎡, and the total construction area is 81,737 ㎡, including 14 buildings such as outpatient building, medical technology research building, inpatient building, administrative building and academic lecture hall, and supporting roads, squares and greening, etc..As a major construction project of Shenzhen city, it is a modern infectious disease hospital which is compatible with the construction of the central city and ADAPTS to the planned development of Shenzhen city.It is a three-level infectious disease hospital integrating medical treatment, scientific research, prevention and protection, teaching and rehabilitation.
2、关于设置 IT 隔离电源系统的相关规范要求
Specification requirements for setting up IT isolated power system
随着社会经济的不断发展，大型综合型的现代化医院不断投入建设，因而医院电气安全可靠也引起来业界的重视，其中关于 ICU、手术室等重要场合的配电安全可靠越来越引起业界重视。尤其是关于IT隔离电源的设置。GB16895.24-2005/IEC60364-7-710:2002 标准中规定，在医疗领域2类医疗场所内，用于维持生命的、外科手术的和其他位于“患者区域”内的医疗电器设备和系统的供电回路应选用带绝缘监视的医疗IT系统供电。2008年8月1日正式实施的《民用建筑电气设计规范》中12.8.6对医疗场所采用的IT系统供电做了相应要求和规定。
With the continuous development of society and economy, large comprehensive modern hospitals are constantly put into construction, so the electrical safety and reliability of hospitals have also attracted the attention of the industry.The safety and reliability of power distribution in important occasions such as ICU and operating room have attracted more and more attention from the industry. Especially with regard to IT isolation power Settings.According to gb16895.24-2005 /IEC60364-7-710:2002, the power supply circuit for life-sustaining, surgical, and other medical electrical equipment and systems located in the "patient area" in class 2 medical facilities in the medical field shall be powered by medical IT systems with insulation and monitoring.12.8.6 In the Civil Building Electrical Design Code officially implemented on August 1, 2008, the corresponding requirements and regulations are made for the POWER supply of IT system used in medical places.
In class 2 medical facilities, the medical IT system shall be used for the power supply circuits for life-sustaining, surgical and other medical electrogas equipment and systems located in the "patient area".
Separate medical IT systems should be installed at least once in adjacent rooms for the same purpose.And it is equipped with insulation monitor.
Each health IT system should be located where medical personnel can monitor IT regularly and should be equipped with an audible and visual alarm system.
Medical IT transformers should be equipped with monitoring devices for overload and overheating.
In 12.8.10, relevant provisions are made for auxiliary equipotential connection.At the same time, 12.8.1-12.8.6 are stipulated in the provisions of 12.8.10 in accordance with the national standard "Medical Places required by Special Devices or Places" GB16895.24.The two types of places include: emergency room (outpatient operating room), operating room, CU room, catheter intervention room and angiography room.
3、IT 隔离电源系统简介及医院采用的重要性 Introduction of IT isolated power system and importance of hospital adoption
IT isolates the power system, and I indicates that the power side is not working grounded, or is grounded through high impedance.T represents the grounding protection of the electrical and gas equipment at the load side.IT system in the power supply distance is not very long, the reliability of power supply is high, good security.Generally used in places where blackouts are not allowed, or where strict continuous power supply is required, IT systems must be used in hospital operating rooms, emergency rooms, ICU rooms, and other type ii places.The use of IT mode power supply system, that is, the neutral point of the power supply is not grounded, once the equipment leakage, single-phase leakage current to the ground is very small, will not destroy the balance of the power supply voltage, so IT can avoid electric shock and other electrical accidents, at the same time is not enough to make the circuit protection electrical equipment action cut off the power supply, to ensure the uninterrupted power supply.So than the power neutral grounding system is safe and reliable.
The importance and necessity of using isolated power systems in hospitals.
而在一般通用建筑中所采用的对地漏电保护开关，其动作响应值是mA 级（如：30 mA），远远不能满足医疗领域的需要。在医院的特殊环境里，漏电流对病人构成了潜在的危险，因此对电气安全设计也提出了特殊的要求。尤其是那些生命攸关的场所，如外科手术室、重症监护室、心脏手术室等地均需安装医用IT隔离电源系统，其目的就是为了保证对该场所内的医疗电器提供一个安全可靠的电源，以确保病人的安全。在导电体触及到心脏(例如，打开心脏的手术或埋置心脏起搏器)时，在普通安全接地的导体之间流过的细微电流会造成微电击和死亡的可能。隔离变压器就象一个门一样，将医疗地区的非保护区域和保护区域的电气线路隔开，保护区域内所有带电导体是与地隔离的，防止线路绝缘层上危险电流造成微电击。绝缘监视仪必须与隔离变压器配合使用，用来连续监视隔离变压器二次侧的带电导体与地之间的电阻及电流，例如，手术过程中流出体外的血液和金属制的手术台可能会使病人与地形成一个通路，这样就存在预期危险电流，一旦医疗电子设备的导电体也形成对地通路(如漏电)，将会造成宏电击(不是所有电流都流经心脏)或微电击(所有电流都流经心脏)。一般供电电网是以大地作为参考电位，相线中的电流可以通过任何未绝缘的通道，对地构成回路，这是电击的根本原因。隔离供电是采用隔离变压器供电，电源经隔离变压器后，原电网中的地已不再是参考电位了。隔离变压器任何一根输出线都不能与地构成回路，只能在两根输出线之间构成回路，这就提高了供电的可靠性。用隔离变压器以分隔非保护区域与保护区域，在隔离变压器的次级引出IT系统的电源，以防止产生接地故障电流。将IT系统引入手术室或急救室，在房间内设一配电箱，箱内放置绝缘监视仪，绝缘监视仪的使用可以及早的显示隔离变压器次级负载部分的绝缘状况，在发生绝缘故障对人身构成威胁前就提供报警信号。而此时电源不会被切断，保证了供电的连续性，医护人员此时可以根据监视仪上显示的漏电流大小和手术的实际情况及时处理，因而人身触电的危险被降低到了最小。
It is well known that when the direct leakage of electrical equipment to the human heart is greater than 10uA, it will cause a micro-shock accident to the patient.
However, the action response value of the earth leakage protection switch used in general general buildings is mA level (such as: 30 mA), which is far from meeting the needs of the medical field.In the special environment of hospital, leakage current poses a potential danger to patients, so special requirements are put forward for electrical safety design.In particular, those vital places, such as surgical operating rooms, intensive care units, cardiac operating rooms, etc., need to install medical IT isolation power system, the purpose of which is to ensure a safe and reliable power supply to medical appliances in the site, so as to ensure the safety of patients.When the conductor touches the heart (for example, during open-heart surgery or embedding a pacemaker), the tiny currents flowing between normally safely grounded conductors can cause micro-shocks and the possibility of death.The isolation transformer acts as a door separating the non-protected area of the medical area from the electrical wiring in the protected area. All live conductors in the protected area are isolated from the ground to prevent the dangerous current on the line insulation from causing a micro-shock.Insulation monitors must be used together with the isolation transformer, used for continuous monitoring isolation transformer secondary side of charged conductor and earth between the resistance and current, for example, in the process of the operation flow of blood and in vitro metal table may make the patient and to form a path, so there are dangerous currents, once the conductor in the medical electronic equipment form of pathways (such as leakage), will cause the macro electric shock (not all current flows through the heart) or micro electric shock (all electric current flows through the heart).Generally, the power supply network takes the ground as the reference potential, and the current in the phase line can pass through any uninsulated channel to form a circuit to the ground, which is the root cause of electric shock.Isolated power supply is the use of isolated transformer power supply, power through the isolated transformer, the original grid is no longer a reference potential.None of the output lines of the isolating transformer can form a circuit with the ground, but can only form a circuit between two output lines, which improves the reliability of power supply.The isolating transformer is used to separate the unprotected area from the protected area, and the power of the IT system is extracted at the secondary of the isolating transformer to prevent the generation of ground fault current.The IT system will be introduced into the operating room or emergency room, and a distribution box will be set in the room, and insulation monitors will be placed in the box. The use of insulation monitors can show the insulation status of the secondary load part of the isolation transformer as early as possible, and alarm signals will be provided before the insulation failure poses a threat to the person.At this time, the power will not be cut off, to ensure the continuity of power supply.Medical staff can then monitor the leakage current and the actual operation, so that the risk of personal shock is minimized.
4、深圳市某医院 IT 隔离电源系统的配置情况 Configuration of IT isolated power supply system in a hospital in Shenzhen city
A hospital in Shenzhen has installed a medical IT isolated power system in all operating rooms and ICUs.Specific composition including isolation transformer, insulation monitors, external alarm and display, current transformer, etc., the system sets the continuity of insulation monitoring, monitoring, and improve the fire load transformer temperature monitoring at an organic whole, reduces the contact voltage and the floor drain current, make person get an electric shock hazard to minimize, greatly improve the ability of accident prevention, to keep the power supply security.A hospital in Shenzhen city chose Bendell IT isolated power supply system from Germany. 系统图如下： The system diagram is as follows:
The IT isolated power system in the ICU is as follows:
Each ICU is equipped with a set of 6.3KVA IT system (including 6.3KVA isolation transformer ES710, insulation monitor 107TD47, current transformer STW2, external alarm display and tester MK2007CBM-CN, special instrument power supply AN450).
2）手术室中IT隔离电源系统图 Diagram of IT isolated power supply system in operating room https://preview.redd.it/nyzbcz5a0j4b1.png?width=624&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d1215898bbb75251951d7b1dfbf50ee83d1d156
Each operating room is equipped with a set of 8KVAIT isolated power supply system (including isolation transformer 8KVA, insulation monitor, special power supply, external alarm display and tester MK2007CBM-CN).
3）系统设备功能: System and equipment functions:
a)绝缘监视仪 Insulation monitor
- Insulation monitoring and alarm system conforms to IEC61557-8 and IEC60364-7-710 standards.
- Special insulation monitors for medical IT systems
- Insulation monitoring, load monitoring and isolation transformer temperature monitoring functions
- LCD with backlit display
- insulation monitoring response value adjusting range 50kΩ-500Ω
- Adjustment range of overload monitoring response value 5A-50A
- Output alarm relay
- RS485 interface
-Measured value analog current signal output
- Built-in or external self-check button
- Wiring monitoring
- Guide rail installation
- ac impedance should be at least 100kΩ;
- The test voltage shall not be greater than dc 25V;
- Even in the case of fault, the peak value of its injected current is not greater than 1Ma;
- the latest in insulation resistance to the 50 kΩ, should be a signal.And the apparatus for testing this function is configured.
b)隔离变压器 Isolating transformer
-满足《建筑物电气装置 第 7-710 部分：特殊装置或场所的要求—医疗场所
- 容量 3.15-10kVA
- 噪音低于 35 分贝
-变压器的二次侧额定电压 Un 不超过 250V，用于移动式和固定式设备的医疗 IT 系统采用单相变压器，其额定输出容量不小于 0.5Kva，不超过 10Kva。
- Meeting electrical installations in buildings - Part 7-710: Requirements for special installations or places - Medical places
It is stipulated in GB16895.24-2005/IEC60364-7-710:2002 710.512.1.6 that medical isolating transformers shall meet the requirements of IEC61558-2-15.
- 3.15-10 kva capacity
- Temperature sensor is installed inside the winding
- Noise below 35 decibels
- The transformer is installed close to the medical site, in the cabinet or in the outer sheath to avoid inadvertent contact with live parts.
- the rated voltage on the secondary side of the transformer shall not exceed 250V. Medical IT systems for mobile and stationary equipment shall adopt single-phase transformers with rated output capacity of not less than 0.5Kva and not more than 10Kva.
- The metal housing of the isolating transformer is connected with the local equipotential connection terminal plate.
c) 外接报警显示和测试仪 Alarm and displaying device
- RS485 接口
- External alarm and display devices for insulation monitors
- Digital tube displays insulation resistance and load status
- Buzzer sound alarm and mute button
- RS485 interface
- Chinese panel
- The waterproof panel is easy to clean
- Real-time monitoring of isolating transformer load condition and transformer winding temperature.
- A green light indicates normal operation;
- A yellow light lights up when the insulation resistance drops to the minimum setting value.This light indicator should not be eliminated or disconnected;
- When the insulation resistance drops to the minimum setting value, the sound alarm action.The audible alarm can be cancelled;
- When the fault is cleared and restored to normal, the yellow signal should go out.Can monitor overload overheating of medical IT transformers
IT isolated power system has the following advantages:
1) The shock voltage and leakage current are too small to cause electric shock or other electrical accidents;
2) In case of ground fault of the power supply system, the circuit protection device will not cut off the power supply, which ensures the uninterrupted power supply.
Precautions for using IT to isolate power systems.
1）IT 系统不能引出中性线，因为在中性线发生接地故障时绝缘监测仪无法故障报警，系统将变为 TT 或 TN 系统，再发生相线接地故障，则系统电源将被切断，可能会产生严重后果。
1) The IT system cannot lead out the neutral wire, because the insulation monitor cannot give an alarm when the neutral wire has ground fault, and the system will
If TT or TN system is changed, the power supply of the system will be cut off if the phase-to-ground fault occurs again, which may have serious consequences.
2）由于 IT 系统发生一相接地时，另两相对低电压将升高，因此对电气线路及电气设备绝缘水平要求较高。
2) The other two relatively low voltages will increase when the IT system is connected to the ground, so the electrical circuits and electrical equipment are insulated, the level is high.
3）IT 系统的绝缘监测仪需通过 PE 线接地，因此其与PE线的连接必须可靠。
3) The insulation monitor of the IT system needs to be grounded through the PE wire, so its connection with the PE wire must be reliable.
An introduction to the Acrel Medical IT Isolation power system
With the wide application of electronic medical equipment in the field of hospitals, leakage current poses more and more threats to patients, especially in those places where life is crucial. During surgery or under anesthesia, a variety of electrodes and sensors are directly inserted into the body of patients, and tiny leakage current may lead to death by electrocution.In addition, some medical equipment is used to maintain the life of seriously ill patients, once the equipment power failure, it will also pose a threat to the lives of patients.Therefore, the electrical design of this special place for medical treatment should be carried out in strict accordance with national standards and norms.
Ankore medical IT system insulation monitoring fault location device and system are suitable for the hospital operating room, ICU(CCU) ward and other important places, can provide safe, continuous, reliable power supply solutions for such places.
7.2 医用隔离电源系统Medical isolation power system
The medical Isolated power monitoring system is used to centrally monitor the health of the medical IT system in all medical 2 locations in the medical building.The centralized monitoring system can be set up in the hospital electrical operation and maintenance personnel on duty room, also can be integrated in other power monitoring system, monitoring by professional electrical personnel, once a set of IT systems fail, electrical maintenance personnel can in time to make a judgment, and according to the site condition for processing.
系统拓扑图 System topology https://preview.redd.it/h5ehfeqe0j4b1.png?width=497&format=png&auto=webp&s=e0d9f132a69c2c8f1b9e137b20e9d3fb96e72b03
7.3 软件功能Software functions
Acrel medical isolated power monitoring system is based on the touch screen software design, the software has a variety of functions such as remote measurement, remote parameter setting and remote self-inspection, which provides a powerful system integration tool for the centralized monitoring of the isolated power system in 2 types of hospitals.The main functions of the software are as follows: https://preview.redd.it/12oywbng0j4b1.png?width=477&format=png&auto=webp&s=83d968ddf470751ebd9336d8071c7e5f0e4f0585
Primary diagram and field distribution display
The system has the function of one-time diagram and field distribution diagram display, can intuitively understand and timely find the alarm location or area of IT power supply system, so as to facilitate professionals to timely arrive at the scene for fault troubleshooting;
Real-time data acquisition and display
The parameters of each isolated power system are collected by means of insulation monitoring instrument and insulation fault location instrument installed in each isolated power system.The collected data will be displayed on the interface of the monitoring system in real time. These monitoring parameters include insulation resistance of IT system to ground, transformer load current, transformer winding temperature and insulation fault circuit, etc. https://preview.redd.it/pl58fxuh0j4b1.png?width=486&format=png&auto=webp&s=789907bcf90ce9f2f81bd9919155c518d409bc07
■ 故障报警Fault alarm
All kinds of faults in the medical isolated power system, such as insulation fault, overload fault, overtemperature fault and connection break fault, are uniformly processed and recorded, and information such as fault type, monitoring value, fault location and fault occurrence time can be displayed directly on the display interface.At the same time start the monitoring system sound and light alarm system, timely remind the relevant personnel, fault treatment.Among them, the sound alarm signal can be manually eliminated.
■ 远程参数设置和查询Remote parameter Settings and queries
Through the system, all kinds of alarm parameter thresholds of insulation monitors in medical isolated power supply systems can be adjusted and set remotely according to requirements, and these alarm parameter values can also be checked at will.The parameters include insulation alarm value, load current alarm value and isolation transformer temperature alarm value https://preview.redd.it/myyo7o3u0j4b1.png?width=486&format=png&auto=webp&s=80ad93926c4c3e63ca2b006f380c667865cfc37b
■ 图形显示功能：Graphic display function:
7.4 安科瑞医用IT系统四件套选型 Acrel medical IT system four-piece set selection
The system can be in the form of a curve, showing the insulation status of each set of isolated power supply system, load status, as well as the isolation transformer temperature rise status, as well as their change trend, in order to facilitate the sub-managers to understand and analyze the operating changes of each power supply system, targeted maintenance and maintenance of some systems.
Insulation monitoring products of medical IT system (a four-piece set) include AITR S series medical isolation transformer, AIM-M10 medical intelligent insulation monitor, abakh 0.66P26 current transformer and AID series (AID10, AID150) external alarm and display instrument, etc., as shown in Figure 5.
Name and type
AITR series medical isolation transformer
AITR系列隔离变压器专用于医疗IT系统，铁芯采用日本进口的硅钢片叠加而成，损耗很小。绕组间采用了双重绝缘处理，并设有静电屏蔽层，减少了绕组间的电磁干扰。线包内安装了 PT100 温度传感器，用于监测变压器温度。整体采用真空侵漆处理，增加了机械强度和抗腐蚀性。产品具有很好的温升性能和很低的噪声。AITR series isolation transformer is specially used in medical IT system, and the core superposition adopts the silicon steel sheet imported from Japan, which has very small losses. The windings are treated with double insulation and have electrostatic shielding layer, which reduces electromagnetic interference between windings. The PT100 temperature sensor is installed in the windings to monitor the temperature of transformer. The whole body is treated with vacuum invasion paint, which increases mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. The product has good temperature rise performance and very low noise.
AIM-M10 medical insulation monitoring device
AIM-M10 medical insulation monitoring device is special for medical IT system.It is used to monitor the insulation status of IT system.It can send out alarm signals when insulation fault occurs.
The AKH-0.66P26 type current transformer is the protective current transformer which the maximum measurable current is 60A and the transformation ratio is 2000:1. The current transformer is directly fixed inside cabinet by screwing
AID series external alarm and displayer
It is suitable for wall installation embedded and can monitor 1 AIM-M10 insulation monitor. It has sound and light alarm function of insulation, overload, overtemperature and equipment failure, and RS485 communication.
LCD display, RS485 bus, centralized monitoring of up to 16 SETS of AIM-M10 medical intelligent insulation monitor data, sound and light alarm can be remote. The AID150 can also monitor data from multiple AIM-R100 residual current monitors.
Table 1 Insulation monitoring products of medical IT system (four-piece set)
Product information of IT isolated power supply system of Bender, Germany.
Wang Houyu on Applied Building Electricity of IT System, 2008 (11) : 3-7.
Application of Liu Jianjun and IT Isolated power Supply system in Shenzhen Third People's Hospital.
Design and Application Manual of Ankore Enterprise Microgrid.2019.11 edition
2023.06.07 06:39 Acrel-electric Application of Energy Management System in Commercial Plaza
| || | submitted by Acrel-electric to u/Acrel-electric [link] [comments]
Abstract: Introduce an international commercial plaza project, which adopts smart power meters to collect various electrical parameters and switch signals at the distribution site. The system adopts the method of on-site networking. After networking, it communicates via fieldbus and transmits it to the background. The Acrel-3000 power management system realizes real-time monitoring and management of the power consumption of floors and power distribution rooms.
Keywords: intelligent power meter; Acrel-3000; Energy management system; 0
The project is located in the core of an economic development zone, with mature development, complete supporting facilities and convenient transportation. This project is the energy utilization transformation of the distribution rooms on each floor of the site. On-site 757 power distribution outgoing circuits were installed with 757 multi-function meters to collect field data. 1
需求分析 Demand Analysis
To ensure the statistics and analysis of electricity load for production management and real-time monitoring of hazard sources. Real-time online monitoring of voltage, current, power and other parameters of electrical equipment such as distribution boxes on the project site is required. Once the monitoring point is monitored with abnormal parameters, it can detect and alarm in time, and relevant personnel can take necessary measures to avoid safety accidents. The automatic meter reading function saves manpower and material resources. The power trend curve function can intuitively display the working status and time of each circuit, which is convenient for users to find abnormal power circuits and make corrections in time, and establish a multi-level electrical energy measurement system to provide energy analysis basis .
This technical condition applies to the incoming and outgoing circuits of the project. The supplier's products should have high safety and reliability, easy to expand, easy to repair and maintain. The products provided by the supplier shall meet the technical requirements at least, but not only this, but the technical performance shall meet the requirements for data monitoring of the equipment distribution box.
1.1 数据采集 Data Collection
Automatically collect analog data of all power meters on site, and automatically collect on-site switching data such as on-site switch status and fault status.
Support real-time collection, automatic periodic collection (timing collection) configurable cycle (1 minute to 24 hours).
Support data transmission correctness inspection, automatic processing of abnormal data.
Support multi-threaded processing mechanism, improve the efficiency of data collection, and can collect data from multiple devices at the same time.
The real-time data display adopts the intuitive display mode of the main wiring diagram of the distribution box, and the disconnection and fault status of each circuit switch are intuitively visible.
1.2 数据分析与处理 Data Analysis And Processing
Comprehensive statistics and analysis of data need to achieve the following functions:
Statistics and calculation of the electricity consumption data of each equipment within hours, days, months, years and other time periods.
Calculate the large, small and average value of the electrical load (active power, reactive power) of each device.
Count the power consumption (active power and reactive power) of each substation and the whole.
1.3 数据查询与展示 Data Query And Display
It is required to facilitate the realization of client query and query of managers at all levels. The query interface can adapt to the requirements of managers at all levels. It can support flexible condition combination query and comparative analysis. Various types of statistical analysis data can be flexibly used in reports and other charts. Intuitive display function.
According to the different permissions of different users, the data display function is divided into three layers: operation layer, management layer, and decision-making layer.
The operation layer has functions such as energy consumption analysis, cumulative consumption, real-time monitoring, running records and ratios, comparison, and benchmarking analysis.
The management has functions such as statistics and analysis of energy consumption data, comparison of classification and sub-items, and benchmarking analysis.
The decision-making layer has functions such as energy data analysis, data deletion, and database import/export.
1.4 权限管理 Authority Management
It is required to assign different roles to different users, and be able to authorize function sub-menus, specific file records, data records, etc.
The system requires a reasonable and complete user security control mechanism to protect the information resources in the application environment and prevent the loss, theft and destruction of information.
1.5 节能改造及效果评估 Energy-Saving Renovation And Effect Evaluation
It is required to provide data support for the energy-saving transformation of production, and provide the effect evaluation before and after the energy-saving transformation.
1.6 参数设置 Parameter Settings
The transformer ratio of each loop and the setting value of various current and voltage protection can be set through the acquisition cabinet.
Fault judgment and alarm have automatic fault judgment and use sound and light alarm function. Alarm types include switch failures, voltage and current overruns, communication failures of the field acquisition module, and communication failures with the monitoring system. The alarm time is automatically recorded in the system database, which is convenient for users to inquire. The staff can grasp the real-time operation status of the substation at any time, find the operation failure of the substation and distribution, and make corresponding treatments, improve the management efficiency of the substation and distribution, and enhance the safety of the power system. reliability.
2 系统方案 System Solutions
According to the actual situation of the project site, the Acrel-3000 system uses shielded twisted-pair cable to connect directly to the corresponding data collector in the monitoring room and then directly connects to the monitoring host through the network cable, ensuring the transmission of the power management monitoring system. The stability and real-time performance. As shown in the figure below: station control management layer, network communication layer and field device layer. https://preview.redd.it/19fhbmr2yi4b1.png?width=306&format=png&auto=webp&s=cc98a22164db5b3721adee65d6f896eb461f90fd
A total of 140 multi-function instruments on site are divided into 12 RS485 buses connected to the monitoring industrial computer in the power distribution room to realize the data connection between the instruments on the bus and the monitoring host.
1）站控管理层 Station Control Management
The station control management layer is the direct window of human-computer interaction for the management personnel of the power monitoring system. In this project, it mainly refers to the monitoring host placed in the power distribution room.
2）网络通讯层 Network Communication Layer
The communication layer is mainly composed of the communication serial port of the monitoring industrial computer, Ethernet equipment and bus network. The main function of the serial port is to monitor on-site intelligent instruments; the main function of the Ethernet equipment and the bus network is to realize the data interaction between the substation and the main station, so that the management of the distribution system is centralized, informatized, and intelligent, which greatly improves the distribution The safety, reliability and stability of the electrical system have achieved the goal of unattended operation.
3）现场设备层 Field Device Layer
The field device layer is the data acquisition terminal, which is mainly composed of smart meters. The smart meters are connected to the communication server through the shielded twisted pair RS485 interface and the MODBUS communication protocol bus connection. The communication server reaches the monitoring host of the power distribution room for networking. Realize remote control.
4) 智能仪表现场连接示意Smart Instrument Connection Diagram
Field instruments are connected hand in hand through shielded twisted pair (RVSP2*1.0). The number of smart instruments connected to each bus is about 20. Different types of smart devices are connected to different buses, and then the data is uploaded to the serial port. The server then uploads the data to the local monitoring terminal. The specific connection diagram is as follows: https://preview.redd.it/g0xk5z84yi4b1.png?width=315&format=png&auto=webp&s=0e245cee57ff2179d889d6c29f11de3789509613
3 系统功能 System Functions
The on-site real-time monitoring system diagram is the main monitoring screen, which mainly monitors the operating status of all circuits in the substation in real time. Red represents closing and green represents opening. In the system diagram, you can intuitively see the operating parameters and status of each incoming and outgoing line, and you can see all the conventional power parameters on the outgoing side of the transformer, such as: three-phase voltage, current, active power, reactive power, and power factor , Frequency, active power, etc. As shown below: https://preview.redd.it/xl0750qcyi4b1.png?width=336&format=png&auto=webp&s=c5dab35ded0a64e2ee627c9c294a8a1b67777320
系统一次图 System diagram
The remote signaling and remote measurement alarm function mainly completes the monitoring of the switch operation status of the low-voltage outlet circuits and the load incoming line. The pop-up alarm interface for switch displacement and load limit violations indicates the specific alarm location and sounds the alarm to remind the duty personnel to deal with it in time. The load limit can be set freely under the corresponding authority. With historical query function.
The event alarm recording function mainly completes the recording of the alarm information and the occurrence time of the alarm information that occurred during the query time period, and provides the basis for the staff on duty and analyzes the cause of the accident.
Parameter meter reading function, mainly to query the electrical parameters of the low-voltage outgoing circuit. Supports electrical parameter query at any time, with functions such as data export and report printing. This report queries the electrical parameters of the low-voltage circuits of the incoming and outgoing lines of the distribution box on the floor of the Yike Building, mainly including: three-phase current, active power and active energy. The name of each circuit in this report is associated with the database, which is convenient for users to modify the name of the circuit. As shown below https://preview.redd.it/f99kc3ofyi4b1.png?width=316&format=png&auto=webp&s=7628070df02a81a234f5da35d5c6f8f552e1b534
电参数抄表Electric parameter reading
The power consumption report function can select the time period for query, supports the cumulative query of the power consumption at any time period, and has the functions of data export and report printing. Provide accurate and reliable electric energy report for the staff on duty. The name of each circuit in this report is associated with the database, which is convenient for users to modify the name of the circuit. As shown in the figure below, it shows the accurate power consumption of the power distribution circuit in the laboratory building of the office building. Users can directly print the report and save it to other locations in EXCEL format. As shown below: https://preview.redd.it/fmfz1xjgyi4b1.png?width=318&format=png&auto=webp&s=26e2b3722ee1cb6363fc8550773a37325cbe650b
A schematic diagram of the system communication structure, which mainly shows the network structure of the system. The system adopts a hierarchical distributed structure and monitors the communication status of the bay layer equipment. Red indicates that the communication is normal, and green indicates that the communication is faulty. The figure below is a schematic diagram of the communication status of the substation. https://preview.redd.it/jo7bd4qhyi4b1.png?width=317&format=png&auto=webp&s=29893a609ac667e64bb2d5b30f76ee5c45455b0c
通讯结构示意图 Communication structure diagram
In the load trend curve interface, the load operation of the loop can be viewed intuitively. View real-time and historical trend curves, click the corresponding button or menu item on the screen to complete the switch of the corresponding function; help users to enter the line trend analysis and fault recall, with the curve printing function. Provides intuitive and convenient software support for analyzing the operating status of the entire system.
4 结束语 Summary
In the application of today’s power distribution facilities, power distribution safety is of the utmost importance. The application of the Acrel-3000 power management system introduced in this article in the commercial plaza project can realize real-time monitoring of the power consumption of the power supply and distribution circuit, not only can display the circuit The power consumption status also has the function of network communication, which can form an electric energy management system with serial server, computer, etc. The system realizes the analysis and processing of the collected data, real-time display of the operating status of each power distribution circuit in the power distribution room, pop-up alarm dialogs, voice prompts for load overruns, and generates various energy reports, analysis curves, graphics, etc., It is convenient for remote meter reading, analysis and research of electric energy. The system is safe, reliable and stable in operation. It provides a safe and reliable basis for the commercial plaza project to solve electricity problems, and has achieved good corporate benefits.
1.Technical requirements of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development No. 114.
2.Solutions for enterprise micro-grid system
2023.06.07 05:26 genericuser234-154 Has anyone installed a hidden kill switch on a MKII?
I have a 3.2L MKII (2008), and I'd like to install a hidden switch that must be "on" for the car to start.
Does any company make a kit of some sort for this? Anyone have experience with a DIY version of this?
I want to make sure that all the sensitive electronics can't be damaged by this switch, so I was initially thinking about having a battery disconnect of some sort, but there must be an easier way. I would prefer a solution that won't let the engine turn over, so that there's a lower chance of the battery being totally drained if someone tries to start it without the switch being turned on.
Is there one or more fuses that could be "disconnected" using a fuse tap? Is it really as simple as running a wire from the fuse box to a switch in series with a fuse?
Thanks in advance!
submitted by genericuser234-154
to AudiTT_Mk1_Mk2_Mk3 [link] [comments]
2023.06.05 20:42 st3vehuff A Guide to Getting Started with UPSC CSE 2024
I hope everybody is doing well. This post has been long-due from my end. Let's get right into it. Introduction
In life, there are challenges that test our mettle, push our limits, and demand unwavering dedication. Among such trials, there exists a realm that holds the power to shape destinies; the "Civil Services Examination
" a fiercely demanding examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission that stands as a testament to resilience, intellect, and perseverance. This post delves into the domain of a truly arduous yet immensely fulfilling endeavor—the journey of UPSC CSE 2024. Disclaimer
Under no pretense, I promise that following the advice mentioned in this post will guarantee selection. However, if you pay attention to these valuable insights it will make your journey far less daunting and more enjoyable.
Table of Content
- Understanding UPSC CSE
- Deciding to Pursue UPSC CSE
- Exam Preparation Strategy
- Preliminary Exam
- Main Exam
- Personality Test (Interview)
- Developing Skills and Qualities
- Additional Preparation Resources
- Exam-Day Strategies and Tips
- Post-Exam and Result Analysis
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. Understanding UPSC CSE & Role of Civil Servants
UPSC CSE is of significant importance in shaping governance and administration. It recruits capable candidates for administrative, police, and diplomatic roles, crucial for nation-building. Civil servants formulate and implement policies, manage resources, and ensure effective governance. They address social issues, uplift marginalized communities, improve public services, and strive for inclusive growth. They work with policymakers, addressing challenges like poverty, education, healthcare, infrastructure, and sustainability. Civil services also include foreign services, fostering diplomacy and global cooperation. UPSC follows a rigorous, merit-based selection process, ensuring competent and ethical candidates. Civil servants are accountable, acting with transparency and integrity. It offers growth opportunities, diverse roles, training, and exposure, enhancing skills and leadership abilities.
You should check the official notification
- Eligibility criteria
- Services offered through UPSC CSE
2. Deciding to Pursue UPSC CSE
Deciding whether UPSC CSE is the right path for you requires careful consideration and self-reflection using C-A-R S-E-T. Consider
if you have a genuine desire to serve the nation, make a positive impact on society, and contribute to the betterment of the country through public service. Assess
your strengths, skills, and aptitudes. Consider if you possess the necessary qualities for civil services, such as analytical thinking, leadership abilities, effective communication, problem-solving skills, and the ability to work under pressure. Reflect
on whether you are willing to invest the time, effort, and dedication needed for extensive and rigorous preparation. Consider your study habits, ability to handle vast amounts of information, and commitment to continuous learning. Seek Guidance and Advice
Speak to current or former civil servants, mentors, or individuals who have attempted UPSC CSE; or are/were in service. Seek their guidance and insights into the challenges, rewards, and realities of a career in civil services. Their experiences can help you gain a deeper understanding of what to expect. Evaluate Alternative Paths
Consider if there are alternative career paths that align with your interests, skills, and aspirations. Explore other avenues that allow you to make a positive impact on society and contribute to public service. [Checkout my previous post for more details] Trust Your Intuition
Listen to your inner voice and trust your instincts. Consider your passion, enthusiasm, and dedication toward public service. If you genuinely feel drawn to the purpose and challenges associated with civil services, it may be an indication that UPSC CSE is the right path for you.
3. Exam Preparation Strategy 3.1 Creating a study plan and Timeline
Develop a realistic and organized study plan that covers all the subjects and topics within the given time frame. Allocate specific time slots for each subject, revision, and practice. Here is one sample you can take inspiration
3.2 Understanding the Syllabus and exam pattern
|Month ||MonthSubject/Theme ||Action |
|June 2023 ||Syllabus and Exam Pattern Analyse ||Syllabus - Word by-word breakdown; Check out PYQs for both Prelims and Mains |
|July 2023 ||Polity/Economy ||Cover the important chapters, Make Notes |
|August 2023 ||History/Art and Culture ||Cover the important chapters, Make Notes |
|September 2023 ||Geography/Environment ||Cover the important chapters, Make Notes |
|October 2023 ||The Optional ||Based on your interest in the past 4 months decide optional and study the PYQs. |
|November 2023 ||The Optional ||If you have to alter the subject this is the time. Else Continue to study. |
|December 2023 ||S&T, IR, Social Issues, CSAT ||Consolidate Current Affairs of the last 6 months. CSAT prep begins here. |
|Jan 2024 ||Core Subjects, Answer Writing, Test Series ||Revise Core Subjects and Practice Test Series and Write at least 1 answer daily from GSI-IV. |
|Feb 2024 ||Core Subjects, Answer Writing, Test Series, Optional Revision ||Revise Core Subjects and Practice Test Series and Write at least 1 answer daily from GSI-IV. Revisit Optional once. |
|March 2024 ||Prelims ||Revise keeping prelims in mind. |
|April 2024 ||Prelims ||70:30 focus on Static: Current. |
|May 2024 ||Prelims, Exam *26 May 2024 ||Final Revision in 3 weeks. |
|June 2024 ||Essay + Ethics+Optional ||Prepare pointers for Essay and Ethics, Revise Paper 1 optional. |
|July 2024 ||GSIII, GS1, GSII ||Mains Answer writing |
|August 2024 ||GS I-IV, Optional ||Mains Answer writing |
|September 2024 ||Mains Exam ||Stay Healthy and Revise concepts from your one-pager notes. |
Check out the Points 4 and 5. 3.3 Recommended Books and study materials
Make use of NCERT textbooks for various subjects (especially for foundational knowledge). At least one standard book per subject we need. So here are some suggestions.
General Studies (Prelims and Mains):
- Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth
- Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh
- History of Modern India by Bipan Chandra (or)
- Spectrum A Brief History of Modern India By Rajiv Ahir
- India's Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra
- Certificate Physical and Human Geography by G.C. Leong
- General Studies Paper I Manual by Tata McGraw-Hill
- General Studies Paper II Manual by MHE (McGraw-Hill Education)
- The Wonder that was India by A.L. Basham
- Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania
- Environment for Civil Services Prelims and Mains by Khuller
- CSAT - Topic-wise Solved Papers by Disha Experts
Current Affairs and Newspapers:
- The Hindu or The Indian Express (Newspapers) (Just one)
- Yojana and Kurukshetra magazines
- Monthly Compilation of Current Affairs.
- Manorama Yearbook
Apart from books, regularly following reliable online platforms, UPSC preparation websites, and educational resources like PIB (Press Information Bureau), PRS (PRS Legislative Research), and the government's official websites can provide valuable insights and updates.
[Moved to 8. Additional Preparation Resources] 3.4 Effective note-making techniques
- Keep it concise: Focus on capturing the key points and essential information. Avoid lengthy sentences and unnecessary details. Use bullet points, headings, and subheadings to structure your notes and make them easy to scan and review.
- Use abbreviations and symbols: Develop a set of abbreviations and symbols to represent commonly used words or phrases. This saves time and space while taking notes. For example, use arrows (→) for "leads to," abbreviations like "govt" for government, or "&" for "and."
- Highlight and underline: Use highlighters or underline important keywords, phrases, or facts to draw attention to critical information. This makes it easier to quickly review and revise key points.
- Draw diagrams and flowcharts: Visual representations like diagrams, flowcharts, or mind maps can help in understanding and retaining complex concepts. Use arrows, boxes, and connectors to illustrate relationships between different ideas or components.
- Use colors and different fonts: Incorporate colors or different fonts to visually differentiate between headings, subheadings, and content. This makes your notes more visually appealing and aids in organization and quick reference.
- Summarize and rephrase: Instead of copying content verbatim, try to summarize and rephrase information in your own words. This process enhances understanding and retention. Focus on capturing the essence of the content rather than every single detail.
- Include examples and case studies: Supplement your notes with relevant examples, case studies, and illustrations. This helps in better comprehension and application of concepts during revision and while answering exam questions.
- Create separate sections for different subjects/topics: Maintain separate notebooks or sections for each subject or topic. This helps in keeping your notes organized and easily accessible. It also allows you to review specific subjects independently.
- Use headings and subheadings: Use clear headings and subheadings to categorize and structure your notes. This makes it easier to locate specific information and navigate through your notes during revision.
- Regularly review and revise your notes: Set aside regular time for revisiting and updating your notes. Reviewing your notes frequently ensures that the information stays fresh in your memory and helps you identify areas that need further clarification or revision.
Remember, note-making is a personal process, and you should develop a system that works best for you. Experiment with different techniques (Cornell, Outlining, Mapping, Charting, Sentence), formats, and organization methods to find what suits your learning style and aids your comprehension and revision process.
4. Preliminary Exam
The Preliminary exam is the first stage of the selection process. It consists of two papers: General Studies Paper-I (GS Paper-I) and General Studies Paper-II (CSAT Paper-II). Here is an overview of the Prelims exam: 1. General Studies Paper-I (GS Paper-I):
Duration: 2 hours
Total marks: 200 marks
Number of questions: 100 questions
1/3rd Negative Marking
Nature of questions: Multiple-choice questions (MCQs)
Syllabus: a. History: Ancient, Medieval, Art and Culture, Modern History of India, Indian National Movement. (not world history) b. Geography: Indian Geography, Physical Geography, Economic Geography, Environmental Geography. c. Polity and Governance: Indian Polity, Constitution, Public Administration, Panchayati Raj, Rights Issues, and Governance. d. Economy: Indian Economy, Economic Development, Sustainable Development, Social Sector Initiatives, Poverty, Inclusion, and Demographics. e. Science and Technology: General Science, Space Technology, IT, Biotechnology, and Environmental Science. f. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Ecology, environmental Legislation, Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Conservation. g. Current Affairs: National and International Events, Government Schemes, Sports, Policies, etc. Not including key important topics as that will put a bias on your initial preparation. 2. General Studies Paper-II (CSAT Paper-II):
Duration: 2 hours
Total marks: 200 marks
Number of questions: 80 questions
1/3rd Negative Marking
Nature of questions: Multiple-choice questions (MCQs)
Syllabus: The CSAT Paper-II focuses on testing the aptitude and analytical abilities of the candidates, including areas such as comprehension, logical reasoning, analytical ability, decision-making, problem-solving, and general mental ability.
It's important to note that the marks obtained in the Prelims exam are considered for qualifying purposes only. The score of the Prelims is not added to the final merit list. The objective of the Prelims is to shortlist candidates for the Main examination based on a predetermined cutoff. How to prepare
- Familiarize yourself with the exam pattern and syllabus of both GS Paper-I and Paper-II. Understand the weightage of each topic and the type of questions asked in the exam.
- Go through PYQs to understand the trends, the difficulty level, and the areas that are frequently asked. This will give you insights into the exam pattern and help you identify important topics.
- Develop a study plan that covers the entire syllabus, allocating sufficient time to each subject and topic. Make a timetable and stick to it, ensuring regular and consistent study hours.
- Choose reliable and comprehensive study materials for each subject. Refer to textbooks, NCERT books, and other recommended resources.
Importance of PYQs and Mock Tests (PYQs >> Mocks)
Solving mock tests and previous years' question papers allows you to evaluate your exam readiness. Mock tests and PYQs provide valuable insights into the exam pattern, structure, and types of questions asked in the UPSC CSE Prelims.
Mock tests help you assess your knowledge and skills. By analyzing your performance, you can identify your strengths and weaknesses in different subjects and topics. This helps you focus your preparation on areas that need improvement, optimizing your study plan.
By solving these papers, you become familiar with the format of the exam and gain confidence in tackling different question styles. It also helps in time management. It won't be an exaggeration if we say that PYQs can help you clear prelims with ease.
5. Main Examination
The Main examination consists of a written exam comprising nine papers, out of which two are qualifying in nature, and the remaining seven are considered for the ranking. Here is the structure and syllabus of the Main exam:
- Paper-A: One of the Indian languages (qualifying in nature) This paper tests your proficiency in one of the scheduled languages mentioned in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution. You need to choose one language from the given list.
- Paper-B: English (qualifying in nature) This paper tests your understanding of English language and comprehension skills.
- Essay (Paper-I): You are required to write two essays, each consisting of 1,000-1,200 words. The topics are given from a wide range of subjects and require analytical and critical thinking.
- General Studies I (Paper-II): Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society.
- General Studies II (Paper-III): Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations.
- General Studies III (Paper-IV): Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management.
- General Studies IV (Paper-V): Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude.
- Optional Subject - Paper I (Paper-VI): You have to choose one optional subject from the list provided by UPSC. Each subject has two papers (Paper I and Paper II).
- Optional Subject - Paper II (Paper-VII): The second paper of the chosen optional subject.
In order to adequately prepare for your studies, it is crucial to refer to the specific wording and content outlined in the syllabus. Let's take an example from the UPSC GS-1 syllabus, which includes the topic "Effects of globalization on Indian society." This particular aspect of the syllabus encompasses various dimensions such as the impact of globalization on women, children, older individuals, culture, and crime in India. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly prepare for this section by exploring all possible dimensions mentioned. To ensure you cover the required topics, it is advisable to keep a copy of the syllabus for reference. Ethics
broadly comprise two parts. Section A ( Theory) and Section B ( Case studies)
Section A of the General Studies IV (Paper-V) in the UPSC Main examination focuses on theoretical aspects related to fundamental values and concepts. It explores the meaning of various words such as integrity, ethics, morality, beliefs, and value systems.
An important subsection within Section A is "foundational values for civil services." This part delves into the core values expected from civil servants, including integrity, impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance, and compassion towards marginalized sections of society.
This section holds immense significance in the syllabus, not only for Section A and case studies but also for your future career as a civil servant. It is crucial to prepare this portion thoroughly as it forms the basis of your ethical conduct and professional responsibilities once you are selected for civil services. Tips for essay writing and answer presentation
Subject-wise preparation strategies for General Studies papers
- Understand the Question: Carefully read and understand the essay or question prompt. Identify the key themes, arguments, or perspectives that need to be addressed.
- Plan and Structure: Devote some time to brainstorming and outlining your essay or answer. Create a clear and logical structure with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Outline the main points and arguments you want to include.
- Introduction: Start with a compelling introduction that sets the context and provides a clear thesis statement or main argument. Engage the reader from the beginning and establish the purpose of your essay or answer.
- Main Body: Present your arguments and ideas coherently in the main body. Each paragraph should focus on a specific point or sub-topic. Use logical transitions to connect your ideas and ensure a smooth flow of information.
- Use Evidence and Examples: Support your arguments with relevant evidence, facts, and examples. This demonstrates your understanding of the topic and adds credibility to your essay or answer. Use real-life examples, case studies, and current affairs to strengthen your points.
- Be Clear and Concise: Use clear and concise language to express your ideas. Avoid unnecessary jargon or complex terminology. Present your thoughts in a straightforward and understandable manner.
- Balance Perspectives: While presenting arguments, consider multiple perspectives and provide a balanced view. Acknowledge counterarguments and address them effectively. This showcases your analytical thinking and ability to critically evaluate different viewpoints.
- Time Management: Manage your time effectively during the exam. Allocate sufficient time to each question or essay and stick to the time limit. Prioritize answering the questions you are most confident about, but ensure that you answer all questions.
- Language and Grammar: Pay attention to your language and grammar. Use proper punctuation, sentence structure, and vocabulary. Proofread your answers for any errors or typos before submitting.
- Practice and Review: Practice writing essays and answering mock questions regularly. Review and analyze your answers to identify areas for improvement. Seek feedback from mentors, teachers, or peers to enhance your writing skills.
It is essential to have a subject-wise approach to cover the vast syllabus effectively. Here are some subject-wise preparation strategies for the GS papers: History
- Start by familiarizing yourself with the major periods, events, and personalities in Indian and world history.
- Focus on understanding the causes, consequences, and significance of important historical events.
- Make a timeline or chronology of events to aid in better retention and visualization.
Polity and Governance
- Study physical, human, and economic geography at the global, regional, and national levels.
- Understand the concepts of physical features, climate, vegetation, population, resources, and their impact on society and economy.
- Use maps, diagrams, and atlases to enhance your understanding of geographical phenomena.
- Stay updated with current events related to geography, such as environmental issues, climate change, and regional conflicts.
- Read the Indian Constitution thoroughly, focusing on fundamental rights, duties, and the structure of the government.
- Understand the working of various institutions like the President, Parliament, Judiciary, and the Election Commission.
- Keep track of recent developments in the field of politics, governance, and constitutional amendments.
- Study the basic principles of public administration and governance in India.
Science and Technology
- Gain a conceptual understanding of the Indian economy, including the various sectors, economic policies, and challenges.
- Study topics like economic planning, budgeting, taxation, banking, and financial institutions.
- Keep track of current economic affairs, government schemes, and initiatives related to the economy.
- Refer to economic survey reports, budget documents, and standard textbooks to develop a strong foundation.
Environment and Ecology
- Cover the basic concepts of physics, chemistry, biology, and environmental science.
- Focus on contemporary issues in science and technology, such as space exploration, biotechnology, information technology, and innovations.
- Stay updated with scientific advancements, breakthroughs, and their implications for society and the environment.
- Understand the ethical, social, and economic aspects of science and technology in the Indian context.
- Study environmental concepts, ecological balance, biodiversity, climate change, and conservation strategies.
- Understand the impact of human activities on the environment and the need for sustainable development.
- Keep track of environmental policies, initiatives, and international agreements.
- Familiarize yourself with important national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves in India.
- Stay updated with current affairs by reading newspapers, magazines, and reliable online sources.
- Focus on national and international events, government policies, reports, and developments related to various subjects.
- Make notes on important current affairs topics and their relevance to the GS papers.
- Analyze the impact of current affairs on society, governance, economy, and international relations.
Remember to practice answer writing, solve previous years' question papers, and take mock tests to assess your preparation and improve your answer presentation skills for each subject. Optional subject selection and preparation
Some tips for selecting and preparing for an optional subject:
- Interest and Aptitude: Choose a subject that genuinely interests you and aligns with your strengths and aptitude. Having a natural inclination towards the subject will make the preparation process more enjoyable and easier to grasp.
- Syllabus and Availability of Study Material: Review the syllabus of each optional subject and assess the availability of relevant study materials, books, and resources. Opt for a subject with a well-defined syllabus and ample study materials to aid your preparation.
- Previous Knowledge and Background: Consider your educational background and previous knowledge in a particular subject. If you have prior knowledge or academic expertise in a specific area, it can give you an advantage and make the learning process smoother.
- Scoring Potential: Research and analyze the scoring potential of different optional subjects. Look at the past trends and the success rate of candidates in each subject. However, keep in mind that scoring in the optional subject is not the sole determinant of success in the exam.
- Coaching and Guidance: Evaluate the availability of coaching institutes and guidance for your chosen optional subject. Coaching can provide structured guidance, study materials, and access to experienced faculty who can help you navigate the subject effectively.
- Time and Effort: Assess the time and effort required for the preparation of each optional subject. Consider the overlap of the optional subject with the General Studies papers and choose a subject that allows you to manage your time and efforts effectively.
- Consistency and Revision: Once you have selected an optional subject, maintain consistency in your preparation. Allocate dedicated time for studying the subject regularly. Revise the concepts, practice answer writing, and solve previous years' question papers to strengthen your understanding and retention.
6. Personality Test (Interview)
The Personality Test is the final hurdle in the selection process. After the Main examination results are announced, candidates who qualify for the interview stage receive a call letter with details about the interview date, time, and venue. Virtual Tour of Museum
- Duration and Panel: The interview generally lasts around 30 minutes. A panel of experienced and knowledgeable members, including UPSC officials and subject matter experts, conducts the interview.
- Evaluation Criteria: The interview assesses the candidate's personality traits, communication skills, critical thinking abilities, problem-solving skills, general awareness, and suitability for a career in civil services.
- Topics Covered: The interview can cover a wide range of topics, including current affairs, national and international events, social issues, government policies, the candidate's background, hobbies, academic achievements, and optional subject knowledge.
- Approach: The interview is not a knowledge test but an evaluation of the candidate's personality. Be confident, honest, and composed. Listen carefully to the questions and provide well-thought-out responses.
- Preparation: To prepare for the interview, stay updated with current affairs and recent developments. Review your DAF (Detailed Application Form) thoroughly, as the panel may ask questions based on the information provided. Practice mock interviews and seek feedback from mentors or seniors.
- Body Language and Communication: Pay attention to your body language, maintain eye contact, sit upright, and speak clearly and confidently. Use appropriate language and be respectful to the panel members.
- Honesty and Integrity: Be truthful in your responses. If you are unsure about an answer, it is better to admit it rather than provide incorrect information. The panel values honesty and integrity.
- Positive Attitude: Maintain a positive and optimistic attitude throughout the interview. Do not get flustered by challenging questions or interruptions. Stay composed and present your thoughts logically.
- Post-Interview Analysis: After the interview, reflect on your performance. Identify areas where you can improve and learn from the experience. Stay positive and prepare for the next steps in the selection process.
Remember, the interview is an opportunity to showcase your personality, confidence, and suitability for civil services. Be well-prepared, stay calm, and present your best self during the interview. More on DAF
Do not include unnecessary hobbies without realizing the consequences. As a result, You have to spend a lot of time preparing answers for irrelevant information, which could have potentially put you in trouble during the interview.
It is crucial to consult a senior or someone experienced before filling your DAF. More often than not, a significant portion of your interview is based on the information provided in the DAF. You will be asked numerous questions on specific aspects of your DAF that the panel found interesting.
Being honest is essential, but it is equally important to be smart. Include only those details that can be easily prepared from an interview point of view. Focus on adding things you are confident about and have thoroughly prepared. Not being able to answer something from your DAF can create a wrong impression.
If possible, consider filling out a rough DAF at the beginning of your UPSC preparation and then develop your hobbies and personality accordingly throughout the course of your preparation.
Even if something goes wrong during the interview, it is crucial to stay calm. Remember that everyone makes mistakes. Gather yourself, remain confident, and maintain a polite demeanor.
7. Developing Skills and Qualities
Read Newspapers: Develop a habit of reading newspapers daily. Focus on national, international, and regional news. Pay attention to editorials, opinion pieces, and articles related to governance, politics, economy, and social issues. You read the newspaper not only for knowledge but as a good habit building. Regularly visit government websites at the national, state, and local levels to stay updated on policy announcements, initiatives, reports, and official statements. Join study groups or discussion forums where aspirants and experts exchange knowledge and insights on current affairs. Engaging in meaningful discussions with fellow aspirants can enhance your understanding. Don't waste time listening to rants. Regularly practice answer writing on current affairs topics. This helps you develop a structured approach, improve your articulation skills, and reinforce your knowledge. Improving writing and communication skills
Reading extensively exposes you to different writing styles, vocabulary, and ideas. Read a variety of materials such as books, newspapers, magazines, and online articles to improve your language skills and broaden your knowledge. Set aside time each day for writing practice. Start with short exercises like journaling, writing reflections, or summarizing articles. Gradually progress to longer pieces such as essays or opinion pieces. Focus on clarity, coherence, and grammar. Organize your thoughts before writing. Create an outline or mind map to establish a logical flow and structure for your writing. This helps convey your ideas effectively and ensures coherence in your written work. Develop your oral communication skills by seeking opportunities for public speaking. Join debate clubs, participate in group discussions, or deliver presentations. Practice articulating your thoughts clearly and engaging with your audience effectively. Effective time management
Stress management techniques
- Prioritize Tasks: Identify the most important and urgent tasks and prioritize them. Make a to-do list or use a planner to organize your tasks based on their importance and deadlines.
- Set SMART Goals: Set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound (SMART) goals for your study sessions. Breaking down your goals into smaller, manageable tasks helps you stay focused and motivated.
- Create a Study Schedule: Develop a study schedule that suits your preferences and aligns with your daily routine. Allocate specific time slots for different subjects, revision, and practice. Stick to the schedule as much as possible to maintain consistency.
- Avoid Procrastination: Procrastination can lead to unnecessary stress and time pressure. Break tasks into smaller parts set deadlines, and practice self-discipline to avoid procrastinating. Start with the most challenging or important tasks to build momentum.
- Minimize Distractions: Identify and minimize distractions during study hours. Turn off notifications on your phone or keep it away from your study area. Create a quiet and dedicated study space to help you concentrate better.
- Use Productivity Techniques: Explore productivity techniques like the Pomodoro Technique, where you work for a set time (e.g., 25 minutes) and take short breaks in between. This helps maintain focus and improves productivity.
- Practice Relaxation Techniques: Engage in relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga to calm your mind and reduce stress. Regular practice helps manage anxiety and promotes overall well-being.
- Take Breaks: Give yourself regular breaks during study sessions. Short breaks can help refresh your mind, improve focus, and prevent burnout. Use these breaks to engage in activities you enjoy or to stretch and relax.
- Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle: Prioritize your physical and mental well-being. Get enough sleep, eat nutritious meals, and exercise regularly. Taking care of your body and mind helps you manage stress better.
- Seek Support: Reach out to friends, family, or fellow aspirants for support. Discuss your concerns, share your experiences, and seek advice when needed. Joining study groups or online communities can provide a support network.
- Stay Positive and Motivated: Maintain a positive mindset and stay motivated throughout your preparation. Celebrate small victories, remind yourself of your goals, and focus on your progress. Surround yourself with positive influences and motivational resources.
8. Additional Preparation Resources Pros of Coaching institutes
Cons of Coaching Institutes:
- Structured Guidance: Coaching institutes provide a structured approach to preparation. They offer a well-defined curriculum, study materials, and a schedule that can help aspirants stay organized and focused.
- Experienced Faculty: Coaching institutes often have experienced faculty members who are well-versed in the UPSC exam pattern and syllabus. They can provide valuable insights, tips, and strategies to tackle different subjects and stages of the exam.
- Peer Learning and Competition: Joining a coaching institute allows you to interact with like-minded aspirants. Group discussions, mock tests, and peer interactions can create a competitive environment that motivates and challenges you to improve your performance.
- Test Series and Mock Exams: Coaching institutes usually conduct regular test series and mock exams, which help in assessing your preparation level and identifying areas that need improvement. These simulated exams also provide a real exam-like experience and help you develop exam-taking skills.
- Personalized Guidance and Doubt Clearing: Many coaching institutes offer personalized guidance and doubt-clearing sessions. You can seek clarification on difficult topics, get feedback on your performance, and receive guidance on exam strategy from expert mentors.
- Cost: Joining a coaching institute can be expensive. Tuition fees, study materials, and other expenses can put a strain on your budget. It is essential to consider the financial aspect before enrolling in a coaching institute. These days online resources can be pretty useful. It requires more digging and some unethical means.
- Time Constraints: Coaching classes have fixed schedules, and you may need to adjust your daily routine accordingly. This can be challenging for working professionals or individuals with other commitments.
- Teaching Style and Compatibility: The teaching style of the faculty and the institute's approach may not always match your learning preferences. Some individuals may find it difficult to adapt to the teaching methods used in coaching institutes.
- Dependency: Over-reliance on coaching institutes can sometimes hinder self-study and independent thinking. It is important to strike a balance between self-study and coaching institute guidance to develop a holistic understanding of the subjects.
- Quality Variation: The quality of coaching institutes can vary. While some institutes have highly qualified and experienced faculty, others may not meet the same standards. It is crucial to research and choose reputable institutes with a proven track record.
Ultimately, the decision to join a coaching institute for UPSC CSE preparation depends on your individual learning style, financial capacity, and availability of time. It is possible to crack the exam without coaching, but if you believe that structured guidance, peer learning, and personalized support would benefit you, joining a coaching institute can be a viable option.
Here are some popular institutes:
Popular Individual faculty for UPSC CSE preparation
- Vajiram and Ravi is a reputed offline coaching institute that also offers online courses for UPSC CSE preparation. Their online platform provides video lectures, study materials, and test series.
- IASbaba is an online platform that offers a range of free and paid courses for UPSC CSE preparation. It provides daily current affairs, study materials, test series, and guidance from experienced mentors.
- ForumIAS is a popular online community for UPSC aspirants. It offers a platform for discussion, doubt-solving, and peer interaction. It also provides study materials, current affairs updates, and guidance from experts.
- InsightsIAS is known for its comprehensive study materials, test series, and current affairs analysis. It provides free resources as well as paid courses for UPSC CSE preparation.
- Vision IAS emphasizes current affairs preparation, considering its significance in the UPSC CSE. They provide monthly magazines, daily news analyses, and other resources to help aspirants stay updated on current events.
Mr. Mrunal Patel [Economy]
Mr. Pratik Nayak [History]
Mr Siddharth Arora [Polity]
Mr Anudeep Durishetty [Essay]
Mr Praveen Kishore [sociology]
More on this later. Self-Motivation and Discipline
Self-study requires self-motivation and discipline. It helps you cultivate these essential qualities, which are crucial for success in the exam. By setting goals, managing your time effectively, and staying focused, you develop a strong work ethic that prepares you for the challenges ahead. When you engage in self-study, you have the opportunity to dive deep into concepts and develop a thorough understanding. You can spend more time on complex topics, explore different resources, and seek clarification when needed. This promotes a strong foundation of knowledge and enhances your conceptual clarity. Regular self-evaluation allows you to assess your progress, identify areas of improvement, and fine-tune your study approach.
9. Exam-Day Strategies and Tips Dos on the day of the exam
- Get a good night's sleep
- Eat a healthy breakfast
- Arrive early at the exam center
- Carry essential documents
- Stay calm and positive
- Read instructions carefully
Don'ts on the day of the exam:
Time management during the exam
- Don't study new topics
- Don't discuss the exam with others
- Don't panic over difficult questions
- Don't rush through the exam
- Don't carry prohibited items
- Don't compare yourself to others
Quickly skim through the entire question paper to get an overview of the questions and their difficulty level. This will help you prioritize and allocate time accordingly.
Divide the available time among different sections based on their weightage and your comfort level. Allocate more time to sections that carry more marks or where you are stronger.
Assign specific time limits to each question or set of questions based on their complexity and marks. This will help you stay on track and avoid spending too much time on a single question.
If you encounter a particularly difficult question or one that is taking up too much time, it's okay to skip it and come back to it later if you have time remaining. Focus on answering the questions you can handle efficiently first.
There are breaks scheduled during the exam, use them wisely. Take a quick mental and physical break, but avoid engaging in lengthy discussions or distractions that may consume precious time. Dealing with exam anxiety and stress
One of the best ways to alleviate exam anxiety is to be well-prepared. Maintain a consistent study routine, cover the syllabus comprehensively, and revise thoroughly. Confidence in your preparation can significantly reduce anxiety. Break it down: Rather than getting overwhelmed by the entire syllabus, break it down into smaller, manageable portions. Create a study plan and set realistic goals for each study session. Focusing on one topic at a time can help reduce anxiety. Deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga, or listening to calming music can help you relax and reduce anxiety levels. Ensure you prioritize self-care. Get enough sleep, eat nutritious meals, and engage in physical activity. A healthy body and mind can better handle stress and anxiety. Develop a study schedule that allows for regular breaks and leisure activities. Effective time management can help reduce the pressure of last-minute cramming and provide a better balance in your routine.
10. Post-Exam and Result Analysis Preliminary Exam Result:
After the UPSC CSE Preliminary Exam, the result is usually declared within a few weeks. The result is published on the official UPSC website. It includes a list of candidates who have qualified for the Main Exam based on the cutoff marks set by the UPSC. Main Exam Result:
Once the Main Exam is conducted, the result is declared after a few months. The result is published on the UPSC website and includes the roll numbers of candidates who have qualified for the next stage, which is the Interview or Personality Test. Final Result:
The final result is declared after the completion of the Interview/Personality Test. It includes the names and ranks of candidates who have successfully cleared all the stages of the exam. The final result is published on the UPSC website and may also be published in leading newspapers. Merit List:
The final result is based on the total marks obtained by candidates in the Main Exam and the Interview/Personality Test. A merit list is prepared based on the overall performance, and candidates are ranked accordingly. The allotment of services is done based on the candidate's rank and preference. Analyzing performance and identifying areas for improvement
Start by reviewing your exam scores and marks obtained in each section. Identify the areas where you performed well and areas where you struggled or scored lower. This will give you an initial understanding of your strengths and weaknesses. Based on your analysis, create a study plan that addresses your weak areas while also reinforcing your strengths. Allocate more time and effort to topics or subjects that need improvement. Break down your study plan into smaller, achievable targets to ensure consistent progress. Strategies for preparing for subsequent attempts
Analyze your strengths and weaknesses, and use this self-assessment as a foundation for your subsequent preparation. Based on your analysis, pinpoint the subjects, topics, or specific areas where you need improvement. It could be conceptual understanding, answer writing, time management, or current affairs. Prioritize these areas and develop a targeted strategy to enhance your knowledge and skills. Reinforce your foundational knowledge by revisiting the basic concepts and fundamentals of each subject. Assess your time management skills and identify areas where you can improve. Consult mentors, teachers, or successful candidates who can provide guidance and valuable insights. Take care of your physical and mental well-being.
11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Is coaching necessary for UPSC CSE preparation?
Coaching is not mandatory, but it can provide structured guidance, study materials, and mock tests. It can be helpful, especially for those who require additional support or prefer a classroom learning environment. However, self-study with the right resources and self-discipline can also lead to success. What are the best books for UPSC CSE preparation?
The choice of books may vary depending on the subject and individual preferences. Some popular books for UPSC CSE include NCERT textbooks, standard reference books by authors like Laxmikanth, M. Laxmikanth, Ramesh Singh, and Bipan Chandra, and newspapers like The Hindu for current affairs. Can working professionals prepare for UPSC CSE?
Yes, working professionals can prepare for UPSC CSE by managing their time effectively, creating a study plan, and dedicating focused hours to preparation. Utilize weekends, early mornings, and evenings for study. Balance work commitments with consistent preparation.
Clarifying misconceptions and providing guidance
Misconception: Only candidates from prestigious educational backgrounds can crack UPSC CSE. →
UPSC CSE is open to candidates from diverse educational backgrounds. It is the knowledge, aptitude, and dedication that matter more than the educational institution. With the right strategy, study materials, and consistent effort, anyone can succeed in the exam.
Misconception: UPSC CSE can be cleared on the first attempt without much preparation. →
UPSC CSE is a highly competitive exam that requires thorough preparation and dedication. While a few exceptional candidates may clear it on their first attempt, most aspirants require multiple attempts. Developing a long-term preparation strategy and consistent effort is key to success.
Misconception: Coaching institutes guarantee success in UPSC CSE. →
Coaching institutes can provide guidance, study materials, and mock tests, but they do not guarantee success. Success in UPSC CSE depends on individual effort, self-study, and consistent practice. Many candidates have cleared the exam without formal coaching. It's important to choose the right resources and adopt a disciplined approach to self-study.
Misconception: Memorizing information is enough for UPSC CSE. →
UPSC CSE tests conceptual understanding, analytical abilities, and application of knowledge. Mere memorization of facts and information is not enough. Focus on understanding concepts, connecting topics, and developing critical thinking skills. Practice answer writing and analyze previous years' question papers to enhance your application-based approach.
Misconception: Studying for long hours guarantees success. →
Study hours alone do not determine success. Quality of study matters more than quantity. Focus on effective time management, breaking down topics into manageable chunks, and setting realistic goals. Take regular breaks, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and prioritize self-care to ensure sustained productivity.
Misconception: English proficiency is mandatory for UPSC CSE. →
While UPSC CSE is conducted in English and Hindi, candidates do not need exceptional fluency in English. Basic proficiency in English is sufficient to understand and communicate effectively. Focus on improving language skills through reading, writing, and practicing answer writing.
Misconception: The optional subject is the key to success in UPSC CSE. →
The optional subject plays a significant role in the Main Examination, but it is not the sole determinant of success. A well-rounded preparation, including General Studies papers, current affairs, and essay writing, is equally important. Choose the optional subject based on your interest, aptitude, and availability of study materials.
Misconception: UPSC CSE is all about hard work, and luck plays no role. →
Hard work is essential for UPSC CSE, but luck can also play a role in certain aspects like question patterns, options in multiple-choice questions, etc. However, luck alone cannot guarantee success. Focus on consistent effort, smart preparation, and improving your skills and knowledge to maximize your chances of success.
We have covered a wide range of topics related to UPSC CSE preparation. We discussed the importance of this exam and its eligibility criteria, exam stages, and services offered. We explored various strategies for exam preparation, including recommended books, note-making techniques, and time management. We also delved into specific subjects, optional subject selection, and interview processes. Furthermore, we addressed common queries, clarified misconceptions, and provided guidance. Throughout the discussion, we emphasized the significance of self-study, self-evaluation, and continuous improvement. We highlighted the value of mock tests, previous years' question papers, and analyzing performance. Lastly, we discussed the importance of motivation, encouragement, and perseverance on this challenging yet rewarding journey. Remember, with dedication, strategic planning, and the right mindset, you can overcome obstacles and achieve success in UPSC CSE. Good luck! Encouragement and motivation for sticklers
Some motivational movies centered around society and its betterment. You should watch it when you have time :)
Dead Poets Society, Remember the Titans, The Pursuit of Happyness, October Sky, Hidden Figures, A Beautiful Mind, Freedom Writers, The Blind Side, Gandhi, Invictus, Freedom Writers, The Help 2011, The Great Debaters, The Pursuit of Equality, Milk 2008, Selma, Norma Rae, Kaala 2018, Peranbu, Mahatma, Drishyam, Swades, Rang De Basanti and many more.
"The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.
" - Eleanor Roosevelt
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2023.06.05 15:08 laughlines Strange Starter Issue - 2008 Kia Rondo 6cyl
Hey y’all! I’m looking for some troubleshooting help on a strange starting issue happening for a few months.
I have already replaced the alternator and battery recently.
In a nutshell: every day or so, after being left alone overnight, my 2008 Kia Rondo won’t start. Battery and electrics are fine but when I turn the key I just get a single click and no dice.
But - if I take out my starter relay in the fuse box and jump the pins with the cable - it turns over easily with no issue. Then when I stick the relay back in, the car turns on with no hesitation for the next day or so.
Once it’s left overnight I have to repeat the process again.
What components should I be looking to test? It seems like it would not be the starter itself based on what’s happening, but that’s also why I’m here to ask y’all!
Year: 2008 Make: Kia Model: Rondo Engine: 6cyl Mileage: 130k Transmission: automatic
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2023.06.05 14:35 mythical_legend I just bought one of those 300 piece spare fuse kits from eBay. Are they safe to use? Does the internal wiring matter? Is the tester safe to use?
so I bought one of those 300 keys spare fuse replacement kits from eBay for about 10 bucks just to have and now I want to see about using it.
this the type of fuse my car uses: https://i.imgur.com/qZwqqk2.jpg
these are some of the fuses that came: https://i.imgur.com/VQNvaXa.jpg
this is the tester: https://i.imgur.com/M52yaIN.jpg
my first question is are these fuses safe to use? when i bought them i thought they were just fuses and if anything happens theyll blow but now im a little concerned about their quality since they arent painted with their amperage (like my 20 year old fuses in the car) and instead has a little diagram.
second even though i pulled a 20amp spare fuse and compared it against the new 20 amp the one i need right now is the red 10amp. the one in the car, like the yellows here, have "n" shapes but the new red ones have the swiggle like in the picture. surely its just a design thing but i wanna make sure theyre the same before i cause any damage.
third, and this might be a stupid one, but what are the shorter fuses for? i put 2 yellows in the picture to show you what i mean. the box has bigger fuses too but the shorter ones and the "normal" ones are in the same "square" so are they interchangeable?
and finally is the tester safe to use? i saw a video on youtube that said all i need to do is connect the alligator clip to metal and then use the tester end on the opening of the top of the fuses. just wanna make sure that using a cheap tester is safe.
thanks for all the help
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2023.06.04 21:31 tpunx Electrical issues.
So I’ve been working on my 1995 gmc G2500 van. It’s been having electrical issues and blowing the break fuse at the box. I think I have it nailed down to what wire and have wiring diagrams of what does where. My question is, how to I isolate the wire and figure out where the fault is?
Any help would be amazing.
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2023.06.03 22:52 WotTheFook Heater blower stopped working on a 2008 Jetta 2.0 TDI BKD
This is a strange one. I broke down with starter motor failure on Friday evening and today I replaced the starter motor and the car starts just fine now. One thing that has happened though is that the heater blower fan for the climate control (it's not the version with the digital readout) has stopped working. I don't think that the two events are related, but the fan not working has me scratching my head. I found a slightly melted 30A fuse (F22?) in the fusebox at the side of the dashboard (the fuse is intact though, it's not blown) and I've replaced it with a new one, but the handbook states that this should be a 40A fuse. I've stuck a 30A in for now but I still get no blower. The air con switch lights up when I press it and I can hear the air con pump turn on and off.
Are there any other fuses that I need to check? I've searched for fuse box diagrams and have found loads of them but they seem to have the fuse box images reversed, as if it's Europe or the US, not the UK. My dashboard fuse box is on the right. The numbers of fuses are also different.
The blower was running right up until I parked up and I came back to no starter motor on the key.
I'm confused at this point, how do I trouble shoot this?
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2023.06.03 19:58 Irinescence Help Request - Front, Back, and Dash Turn Signal Out Simultaneously
Hi, my 2008 lost it's left turn signal. Searching the forum hasn't found me an answer yet.
The first thing I noticed was the sound was faster than usual. Then I noticed the left turn dash indicator was out. Right turn indicator working properly. Front and back turn signals do not light, either by activating the turn signal stalk or by using hazard flashers. Activating my hazard flashers only lights the right side lights (and right arrow dash indicator).
A few weeks ago I removed my headlight housings to replace the HID bulbs and to polish the plastic. I checked the turn signal bulbs, they both appear to be intact and connected and I haven't tried replacing them. The fuse diagram I found said both sides are on the same fuse.
Anyone recognize this problem? Someone on Priuschat had a turn signal problem, for which the recommendation was to replace the relay under the dash. Is that my next move? Or if the relay itself failed, would I not get the stalk-activated clicking at all?
Thanks for reading and helping if you can.
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to prius [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 10:11 tidderscot FACT SHEETS FOR EDUCATORS
Digital technology in the early years: The importance of everyday learning opportunities to build young children’s digital technology skills
This factsheet will support early childhood professionals to:
- broaden their understanding of the inclusion of digital technology in the early years
- explore effective strategies to embed play-based digital practices
- support children’s concept development of digital technologies
As a co-author of the Early Childhood Australia (ECA) Statement on young children and digital technologies, can you explain the rationale for creating this statement? How can it support educator practice with regards to building children’s digital technology skills?
The ECA Statement on young children and digital technologies
was created to support adults to make decisions about technology use ‘with, by and for’ young children. Increased recognition in the sector that young children use a range of technologies at home and in their communities, for playing, communicating and accessing online content, suggested that digital learning in early childhood settings was timely. The statement highlights four main areas of children’s learning and development: relationships, health and wellbeing, citizenship, and play and pedagogy. It also invites educators to think about how they understand technologies and the role of technologies in the lives of children and families.
This includes thinking about what is known as ‘philosophy of technology’ (Gibbons 2010). Philosophy of technology is a body of knowledge that proposes different ways of thinking about the relationship between people and technologies. Just as there are theories of play and learning that educators can refer to, there are philosophies of technology educators can draw on to think about using technologies with children. Three of the main philosophies of technology are technological determinism, substantivism and critical constructivism. Technological determinism is the most commonly held view. This view suggests that technologies cause or determine what happens to people. Some people hold a negative view of determinism: for example, thinking that technologies reduce the quality of children’s imaginative play. Other people hold a positive view of determinism, believing that technologies support children to communicate with others. Substantivism considers how technologies shape practices, or what people do in their daily lives over time. Critical constructivism posits that technologies are always designed and used by people according to human values. This view suggests that people can make active choices about how and why they use technologies that are relevant to their lives, such as people using videoconferencing during the pandemic to connect with family and friends.
The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF) refers to five Learning and Development Outcomes for children. Outcomes 4 and 5 explicitly mention the inclusion of digital technologies in children’s learning. What are some effective learning experiences that explore everyday opportunities to build children’s understanding and use of digital technologies?
Technologies are part of children’s lives; however, not all educators are comfortable with using technologies in children’s learning. Rather than focusing only on the technology in digital learning, think instead about the ways in which technology creates opportunities for meaning-making. For example, making meaning using technologies may involve taking photographs, creating videos or slideshows, co-sharing digital content, or coding with robotics. Meaning-making can also be about understanding how we live with and use technologies in our daily lives. Meaning-making for understanding does not have to involve using working technologies. Children can create their own non-working technologies from available materials (such as boxes, blocks or paper) to participate in sociodramatic play that provides opportunities for talking about how and why technologies are used. For example, children might make their own mobile phones and use these in their play to send messages to each other and take calls. Educators can help children in this play by inviting children to use technologies in ways that are respectful of relationships. Are the children having a pretend meal together? Can educators invite children to put their phones away while they eat? Or if children are taking pretend photographs of each other, educators can be sure to model asking for consent. Educators can also create representations of technologies that help children learn about the internet and how information and data are shared over a network: for example, using string to ‘connect’ non-working devices in a home or office corner to help children learn about the internet as a network of connected technologies. Children can ‘send’ messages, emails or content to each other as paper notes attached to the string. Educators can invite children to consider if they know who is sending them messages or where the content has come from. This provides children with an everyday opportunity to learn about the internet and safe online behaviours.
The VEYLDF states ‘Assessment is designed to discover what children know, understand, and can do’. What does this look like in terms of children’s trajectory of learning around digital technology? How might educators connect their observations of children engaging with digital technology to children’s learning and development across other domains?
Children are likely to follow a developmental trajectory when using technologies due to their experiences using technologies at home and in the community, with their family, friends and peers. Children’s experiences with technologies are variable and so they will come to early childhood education and care settings with a range of technological knowledge and skills. This can depend on the access children have to devices, reliable internet and opportunities for adult engagement during technological activity. Educators can observe how children build their capacity to use devices over time. This is important because some basic operational knowledge with technologies is required of children as they enter formal schooling. For example, do children know how to turn technologies on and off? Can children point, touch, swipe and resize using a tablet? Pre-school aged children may also exhibit technological language, such as download, upload, click and save, and will probably know the difference between still and moving images. This language helps children communicate and share information with other people, including family members and peers. When children use technologies, educators can also support connections with digital media or content that supports children’s identity. For example, which programs or games do children enjoy at home and how are these recognised in the classroom? This can be achieved by providing children with access to pretend technologies and apps, such as a cardboard box representing a touchscreen device, with cut-outs of their favourite applications. Other examples include learning about digital media interests alongside children, examining and sharing storylines, or providing opportunities for children to express digital media interests through more traditional play, such as box construction, drawing or painting. Using internet-connected technologies also provides opportunities for children and educators to access information to resource play and learning, such as through video content, or well-curated resources from reputable early learning providers in topic areas including science, mathematical thinking, history, music and visual or performing arts.
The VEYLDF identifies eight Practice Principles that illustrate the most effective ways for all early childhood professionals to support children's learning and development. One of these Practice Principles is ‘Partnerships with Families’. What are some effective strategies to engage families in discussions about digital technologies and young children?
Families are central to children’s learning and development. When educators engage in discussion about technologies with families, they can help adult caregivers facilitate positive digital learning opportunities for children at home. The VEYLDF states ‘Early childhood professionals … actively engage families and children in planning for ongoing learning and development in the service, at home and in the local community’ (VEYLDF, p. 9). Many organisations in Australia are involved in promoting and supporting young children’s safe and productive engagement with technologies, with tip sheets, videos, infographics and games. Educators can invite families to use these materials with children to explore topics such as staying safe online, being active with technologies, using technologies to support social relationships, and fostering children’s digital play.
What would be some final key messages for educators who want to support children’s digital skills and understanding?
Two key messages are important for educators thinking about supporting children’s digital skills and understandings. The first message is to start involving children in digital opportunities that feel achievable within the service. Not all services have access to technologies and not all educators feel comfortable using technologies with children. Programming can involve using non-working technologies in children’s play, such as using a block in pretend play as a mobile phone, or teachers creating representational technologies for children to use in the home corner (for example, printed life-size copies of tablet devices). Working technologies do not need to be complicated. While coding, robotics, digital microscopes and augmented reality provide highly engaging learning opportunities, children can also learn from educators modelling appropriate technology use on more accessible technologies, such as touchscreen: for example, by asking permission to take photographs or fact-checking information online. It may also be helpful for services to complete a technology audit – such as the eSafety checklist for early learning services
– to see which technologies are available for children and where these might be integrated with ongoing learning opportunities in the service. For example, digital music can be incorporated into rest times, or children can be provided with opportunities to create digital drawings alongside traditional mark making.
The second message is to understand that young children today are part of a digital world. At any one time there are more than 8000 satellites around the earth that are sending and communicating information and data. It is becoming harder and harder to isolate children from technologies because so much of the world is now digital. It may be more helpful to think intentionally about supporting children to live within a digital world. The VEYLDF states ‘Early childhood professionals … use intentional teaching strategies that are always purposeful and may be pre-planned or spontaneous, to support achievement of well-considered and identified goals’ (VEYLDF, p. 15). This shifts the pedagogical focus from trying to keep children away from technologies to thinking about the purposeful use of technologies with children, allowing children to develop the knowledge and skills they require to participate in a digital world.
Questioning and listening
Asking questions and then listening to the answers can propel children’s learning, and it is this approach that is at the heart of an inquiry model. Questioning and listening are essential in any learning relationship, and they are both part of an active process where you do not just listen and question children but also interpret, respond to and make meaning of their thinking and learning processes.
The pedagogical strategy of listening can provide educators with a new framework in which to consider their role in children’s learning and development. When educators look deeply at what holds children’s attention, the result is that children and adults are able to recognise capabilities and qualities in each other.
Do not always rely on asking questions and trying to provoke answers as a way of engaging with children. Educators who give children the time, space and resources to think long and deeply are often rewarded with rich responses.
‘The right question at the right time can move children to peaks in their thinking that result in significant steps forward and real intellectual excitement. Although it is almost impossible for an adult to know exactly the right time to ask a specific question of a specific child – especially for a teacher who is concerned with 30 or more children – children can raise the right question for themselves if the setting is right.’ (Millikan, et al 2014, p. 69)
The value of questioning cannot be overstated, particularly when working with a pedagogy of inquiry. You need to consider what directions you are leading children with your questions, as well as what type of questions you ask children. Are they ‘thick’ questions or ‘thin’ questions? That is, are they questions that are open ended and encourage children to think broadly or do they close off children’s thinking?
Wonder and uncertainty
Wonder and uncertainty are necessary dispositions for learning. Both of these dispositions are considered important when working with a pedagogy of inquiry. As Moss says, ‘Such learning is also more likely to happen and be welcomed when wonder or amazement are valued’ (Moss 2019, p. 74).
Rich learning opportunities can happen when you include these dispositions in your daily practice. This is not a closed-off, linear way of working but rather one that allows you to remain open to the ideas of children, their families and your colleagues.
When you work with dispositions of wonder and uncertainty, it encourages a flexible way of thinking and working in which hypotheses might be made but are also subject to change. This is not an approach that has pre-determined outcomes.
Top tips for working with a pedagogy of inquiry
- Read, listen or watch something that might shift your thinking or that supports you to develop a growth mindset. Learn something new to bring back into your work with children. This does not need to be related to early learning. Learn something that fires up your neural pathways. An educator’s area of interest or enthusiasm can have an inherent trickle-down positive impact on children.
- Adults can often anticipate difficulties and resolve them for children, and this does not give children the opportunity to think for themselves and provide solutions. Educators should aim to create a culture of ideas rather than a culture that provides all of the answers.
- Design your environments carefully, with attention paid to the intentional use of resources, materials and provocations, and provide children with extended periods of time to re-visit these.
- Educators need to follow children’s footprints – that is, the directions of their learning. This is only possible through a process of reviewing and reflecting on your documentation materials. It can be useful to consider what you know, what you don’t yet know and what you would like to find out more about. Gathering clues about children and then asking rich, deep questions adds great value to the development of any inquiry project.
- Give children time to be curious, to wonder, and to discuss and adjust or change their opinions.
This fact sheet was developed by the Early Years Unit at VCAA
This fact sheet was developed by the Early Years Unit at the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) and supports information presented in the VCAA on-demand webinar ‘A pedagogy of inquiry to support integrated teaching and learning approaches’. Watch A pedagogy of inquiry to support integrated teaching and learning approaches
Duckworth, E 1996, The having of wonderful ideas and other essays on teaching and learning, Teachers College Press, New York
Edwards, C, Gandini, L and Forman, G (eds.) 2012, The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Experience in Transformation, 3rd edn, Praeger, Santa Barbera
Moss, P 2019, Alternative Narratives in Early Childhood, Routledge, Oxfordshire
Touhill, L 2012, ‘Inquiry-based Learning’, NQS PLP e-Newsletter, No. 45
Using the VEYLDF to inform your practice
As part of the Education and Care Services National Law
(National Law) and the National Quality Standards, the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF) is an approved learning framework. As an approved learning framework, it has the potential to make you a better educator and your practice more contemporary.
The VEYLDF allows us to reflect on learning and development outcomes for children. As educators, we can reflect on our own practice in supporting all children by considering if our work aligns with the Practice Principles. The VEYLDF provides us opportunities to inform our pedagogical decisions and to critique or challenge our existing practices.
The VEYLDF also provides a shared language and understanding for all early childhood professionals and can inform conversations with families, colleagues and other professionals working with young children.
Additional resources that might be useful
Download copies of VCAA early years resources
Keep up to date with new resources and professional learning opportunities by subscribing to the VCAA Early Years Alert
. A pedagogy of inquiry to support integrated teaching and learning approaches
Download the fact sheet
‘The hands lead us to learning’: Enhancing and extending children’s fine motor development through playful learning experiences
This fact sheet is for educators who want to better understand:
- how educators can think more broadly and deeply about fine motor development in infants and children
- the interplay between fine motor development occurring in play and in relationships with adults, caregivers and peers
- the importance of routines as learning experiences with embedded fine motor learning opportunities.
Children’s fine motor skill development – that is, their ability to use their hands – is strongly connected to their play.
Infants’ efforts at motor control commence early. An example of this is the infant who actively reaches towards the face of a person who is physically close to them and engaged in a responsive and attuned relationship with them; the adult, carer or older sibling is perhaps smiling and ‘cooing’ while they are focusing their gaze on the face of the child, who reaches out towards their face.
We understand, in general terms, that the progression of motor development occurs from the centre of the body to the periphery, known as proximodistal progression, or from larger motor control to finer movements. However, over time we have gained a more balanced and nuanced understanding of motor development and we can now see early fine motor development before trunk control is consolidated. Gross motor development leading to core stability and support remains foundational, but earlier attention is now given to fine motor endeavours of infants, with an appreciation that ‘the hands lead us to to learning’.
We understand that gross motor development and fine motor development occur simultaneously and in the context of responsive relationships and purposeful learning spaces. Adults engaging in contingent and attuned interactions with infants provide ‘serve and return’ opportunities and rich responsive learning experiences. Children actively engage, using their growing fine motor dexterity and strength alongside their learning in other developmental domains such as language and cognitive capabilities. It is the interplay between these supportive relationships and children’s growing capabilities that fosters children’s wellbeing. This is now understood to increase the likelihood that infants will confidently explore their world and this exploration is in large part through their hands.
Can you explain the relationship between gross motor skill development and fine motor skill development? How does one support the other?
When we consider that gross motor skill development and fine motor skill development occur simultaneously, we can see the importance of early childhood professionals providing positive and responsive interactions and relationships throughout the day. The way the early childhood professional engages with the infant or young child provides opportunities to progress development.
The early childhood professional who ensures regular ‘tummy time’ is providing opportunity for infants to strengthen muscles, leading to greater core stability. This core stability is foundational to the later skills of sitting up, crawling and walking. These are important skills indeed, however, there is a need to balance this ‘tummy time’ with opportunities for the infant to be positioned on their back, or in a supported sitting position, where they are freely able to explore with their hands.
Thinking of fine motor development at its beginning stages helps us to actively create opportunities for children to explore with their hands. This in turn promotes children’s sense of agency and wellbeing, which is often associated with using their hands. The more children actively do, the more they feel that they can build, create, explore and express themselves.
We are often quite mindful of assessing children’s physical skills progression. Learning experiences, including playful routine times, provide golden opportunities to assess children’s sequential fine motor development from reaching and releasing, from palmer grasping to pincer gripping and so on. Progression along trajectories of learning (including motor skill learning) becomes apparent and provides the basis for tailored learning experiences.
It is important to consider children who require additional support with gross and fine motor skills. Thoughtful planning ensures we set up environments in which all children can feel confident in developing their gross and fine motor skills and feel a sense of agency and control. As we delight in their endeavours, with thoughtful planning we can build children’s sense of wellbeing, identity and connection to their world. Children become able to confidently explore and engage with social and physical environments through relationships and play.
What kind of playful fine motor learning experiences should educators consider when setting up early learning environments for children three to five years old? What are some effective playful strategies for supporting fine motor development?
Three to five years is a fabulous age for more complex play scenarios, with children using multiple learning domains simultaneously and in increasingly sophisticated ways. Again, ‘the hands lead us to learning’ and this is expressed in so much more than just writing and drawing. Indeed, children are extending and consolidating an increasing range of skills at this age.
The work of researchers Susan Knox (2008), and Karen Stagnitti and Louise Jellie (2006), can be used here to consider planning for play in reference to four elements: Space management, Materials management, Pretend play
. This research, while based in occupational therapy, aligns well with the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF) and places children’s wellbeing at the centre of play. Practitioners are encouraged to consider how to promote participation by all children, inclusive of all abilities, through careful consideration of the environment, materials and pretend-play opportunities. This research provides a thorough and holistic view of children’s learning, recognising that children bring increasing cognition, language, social skills, fine motor development, creativity and agency to their play. Child-led play is key, but the educator must also consider how to promote play opportunities that take children beyond their most frequented play spaces. This requires a more creative use of learning environments, inviting children to participate in spaces and skills they may not have previously sought out independently.
One example is to set up a restaurant, where children are invited to navigate the space and engage with a variety of fine motor skills during a complex pretend-play scenario. This embeds learning in meaningful ways, with multiple learning areas at play. Children can take on various characters while engaging, negotiating and problem-solving. Fine motor skills are practised purposefully as children take written orders, write or draw a menu, cut up paper to make money, set up a cash register, dress up as waiters, pour drinks, prepare food and set up tables. The opportunities are endless and can be tailored to children’s interest and skills to provide challenge, practice and delight. For example, bi-manual skills are promoted in this scenario when opening containers and stirring bowls of food, where hands undertake different tasks at once – one hand holding and stabilising while the other hand turns or stirs.
Educators need only a creative mind in planning for all four elements, and the learning opportunities are endless (‘Early childhood professionals … use intentional teaching strategies that are always purposeful and may be pre-planned or spontaneous, to support achievement of well considered and identified goals’ [VEYLDF p. 15]). Inclusive thinking may see this play space provided outdoors, inviting in children who may be less likely to engage indoors (intentional support strategies also promote equitable participation in play for all children and meaningful ways to demonstrate learning [VEYLDF p. 12]).
A creative and inclusive approach asks us to consider the environment in numerous ways, offering a wide variety of materials, setting up play spaces that invite self-management and challenge, and following the increasingly complex play scripts or pretend-play scenarios of young children.
What are some everyday routines for children that might provide opportunities for supporting fine motor development?
Routines and transition times offer a wealth of fine motor experience and abundant opportunities for promoting children’s agency and self-responsibility. Additionally, they are highly repetitive daily experiences – treasures for practising fine motor skills. Encouraging independent skill development during these times, with warmth and high expectations for children, can turn a range of daily tasks into important learning rituals.
These rituals connect children to their peers and to their space, building confidence, connection and wellbeing. Children’s active participation provides many and varied fine motor movements at different times, such as taking care of their belongings at entry and departure times, dressing and undressing, setting up for meals, toileting and setting up play or rest areas.
Regular communication with families allows the progression in children’s skills to be shared between educators and families. This can reveal collaborative opportunities across home and the early years setting, and align our expectations for children. Playful and routine practice opportunities abound, with partnership between educators and families building children’s confidence and capacities (VEYLDF p. 9).
‘To play or not to play’: The role of the adult in understanding and collaborating in children’s play
This fact sheet is for educators who want to better understand:
- the role of the adult in supporting children’s learning and development through play
- how to build reciprocal relationships where children and adults are co-contributors to the creative process.
When we think about play within the early learning context, we often think of it as being ‘fun’ and occurring naturally – it is often referred to as being universally understood. Is this the case, or is it more complicated than that?
Children’s play encompasses many ways of being and becoming. Play is linked to fun, but this is just one way of being and does not speak to the complexity of play. Fun is fleeting. Parts of play can be joyful, frustrating, exciting, annoying, challenging, hilarious and, at times, uncomfortable. Play includes many emotions and experiences. Sometimes children are excluded from other children’s play – is this fun? What children are doing in play is complex – navigating limbs, expressing ideas, listening to others, creating novel worlds and negotiating with peers. Therefore, the emotions and feelings that children experience are varied.
Children are experimenting with and expressing their worlds, and the collaborative activity of play requires many skills. Ebbeck and Waniganayake (2016) tell us that in play ‘children are constructing an identity – who they are, what they know and what their joys and fears are, as well as their sense of belonging to a family and a community’ (p. 3). This understanding captures the richness of play, which is not limited to one way of being. Seeing children’s play as multifaceted allows educators to holistically understand children in the early childhood context.
Play is a universal activity that children engage in, as reflected in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989). But while there are similarities that occur in children’s play across the world, when we look at and hear what children are doing and expressing in their play, we see that it is also informed by their culture. For example, in dramatic play, being ‘Bluey’ or making cakes in the sand pit are activities that are directly taken from the child’s day-to-day culture. The people, places, objects, practices and rituals in the child’s culture fuel their play, and play is thus an expression that reflects the culture the play is taking place within.
Children bring into the early childhood setting individual, family and community experiences that reflect their culture, giving educators a rich tapestry to understand the child’s perspective of their world. Roopnarine’s (2011) quote is helpful to understand the links between play and culture: ‘A fundamental problem with universal claims about play is that they basically ignore contrasting realities of childhood experiences and cultural forces that may help shape caregivers ideas about play and early learning, and children’s role in their own play.’ (p. 20)
Given that there are many different theories that inform our approaches to children’s learning and development, does the role of the adult vary in supporting children’s development in play?
Theories can inform teaching practice, as being able to hold other ideas and perspectives allows us to see things differently. Theory is helpful for understanding the world around us, and in the early childhood education and care (ECEC) context, theories can inform and change our practice.
Developmental theories are varied and vast, and contemporary framings have become quite different from the more foundational knowledge, reflecting the diversity of our societies. The field is not stuck on linear and fixed stages. Practitioners work with the children in their care, taking into consideration their contexts, environments and families, and using various theories and research to inform their practice.
Teaching practice varies, and theory and research can assist educators’ practice. For example, contemporary theories remind us that children’s play is not simply something that happens naturally; these theories consider group dynamics, equity, social justice, advantage and disadvantage, and the way power moves between the players. They also explore the ways that understanding children’s lives outside the early childhood setting can inform teaching and program planning. Contemporary theories can open us up to other views, and while many of these have existed for a very long time, they haven’t always been prioritised to think about children, context, difference and learning.
How can we ensure that the play opportunities we create for children help build collaborative and reciprocal relationships between adult and child?
The following diagram from page 15 of the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF) shows the three aspects of integrated teaching and learning, and holds great clues about the educator’s role in children’s play.
This diagram can be used by educators and teams to reflect on their practice. Guided play and learning
prioritise the educator responding to spontaneous learning opportunities. Reciprocal two-way exchanges create a balance of children guiding adults, and adults guiding children in dialogue and action. This becomes an improvisation that follows unknown paths, opening up opportunities to collaborate by creating something that did not exist before. When adults are playful with children, multiple perspectives are valued in the collaborative space.
Thinking of educators as co-contributors to the creative process of play speaks to the notion of responding to children’s interests. However, it is useful to adapt this slightly to instead think about responding to the child’s learning. Interests can be transient and surface-level; focusing on children’s learning is more expansive and process-orientated, as learning involves both thinking and enacting through play. This way of working asks educators to respond to spontaneous opportunities that arise, and play affords this responsive practice. Play is a relational activity between children and place, children and objects, children and children, and between children and adults.
Educators are respectfully cognisant of not wanting to take over too much control of children’s play, and when they improvise with children, finding a balance of following and leading, they can incorporate multiple children’s ideas and wonderings in the embodied play narratives. When teachers make use of children’s expertise, it supports children’s agency as their decisions influence the current events within the play. The playful interactions between the educator and children are fluid and unpredictable, mirroring drama pedagogue’s use of an improvised inquiry. Of course, we would not advocate that the educator enters children’s play all the time; this does not align philosophically with play and the ECEC context. However, at times, being a co-player with children speaks to a responsive pedagogy where creative collaborations can occur in play.
What is the relationship between play and learning?
When adults engage in play with children, they can incorporate formative assessment to develop their understandings of the children and inform their planning. Socio-dramatic play is one way children express their imagination. When educators are with children, they are hearing and seeing children’s imaginations enacted, giving rich information about their learning. In play, children are also blocking out other distractions to problem-solve in the moment, and taking on other perspectives, both from other players and in their own role-play. These are all skills that are linked to our executive function, which is the ‘process of how we learn’ (Yogman et al. 2018, p. 6).
When educators are respectfully engaging with children in play, they are part of the collaboration, co-creating something that is novel and only exists between the people in this activity. If educators are only observing from the outside, how can they understand this process? When educators are part of children’s play, they are in the heart of the learning, and it can open up opportunities for understanding children’s working theories and learning processes. What the educator notes when they engage in the play can be documented as part of the planning cycle, and analysed so that understanding the child’s learning within play is extended through planning.
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